To strengthen the belief, new converts would be needed, which requires proselytizing. Indeed, this also occurred, with some group members proselytizing their beliefs after the disconfirmation. Notably, this proselytizing solution reflects not only effort justification but also the motivation to create a shared reality with others that their beliefs are true. This is yet another way to establish what is real that we discuss next.
For instance, the specificities of change-related processes can differ across the organizations to the degree where the same change in policies will produce a different reaction and encounter different implementation barriers. While it is tempting to assume that such approach resulted in a more focused inquiry, it is also possible that the leadership practices in other settings have an additional set of factors that render the findings of the current study irrelevant. Finally, such sampling technique does not permit estimating the variability of the sample and therefore does not allow identifying possible biases, such as the selection bias.
Equity Theory in Psychology
Finally, it is possible that the data analysis would reveal the previously overlooked issues that require closer examination. The cautions noted here are not intended to deter you from using goal theory. cognitive dissonance theory Remember, employees have a right to reasonable performance expectations and the rewards that result from performance, and organizations have a right to expect high performance levels from employees.
The growing intensity of the contemporary business environment puts forward numerous demands to organizations. Flexibility and adaptability become more important as the dynamics of organizational development become a crucial factor in the light of high competition (Nandakumar, Jharkharia, & Nair, 2014). Another aspect that is uniformly pursued regardless of the industry segment is innovation – the ability to find improvements for existing operations as well as introduce new ones with more value (Anderson, Potočnik, & https://ecosoberhouse.com/ Zhou, 2014). Understandably, when leaders are experiencing positive emotions, the resulting improvements are much more visible. In addition, the readiness to engage in problem-solving activities and challenging tasks increases in the teams with optimistic leaders and yields better results (Noruzy, Dalfard, Azhdari, Nazari-Shirkouhi, & Rezazadeh, 2013). Finally, the positive attitude transmitted by the leaders boosts trust within the team, minimizes blame culture, and promotes collaboration and openness within a team.
Contemporary motivation theories
In many cases, these traumatic experiences obtain significant weight and may become dominant in the decision-making process. It also implies that the positive resolution is less likely since the driving force is based on avoidance of the negative rather than the pursuit of the positive. In most cases, these unfulfilled needs are undetectable without a designated effort. However, once the individuals become aware of their unfulfilled needs, they can exercise better control and consciously seek for improvement by targeting the areas where the said discomfort can be alleviated in the most effective way.